Bankruptcy - ورشکستگی



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An individual or company that cannot pay its debit is considered insolvent.


A company becomes bankrupt when a special court, known as a bankruptcy court, rules that is insolvent.

Bankruptcy plan

The court usually orders the individual or firm to follow a bankruptcy, or reorganization, plan.

File for bankruptcy

Companies seek protection by filling for bankruptcy, and court declares a firm bankrupt.


A creditor is any person or company who is owed money by another person or company.

Creditors play a major role in designing the bankruptcy plan and usually vote on accepting or rejecting the plan.

Secured creditor

Creditors whose loans are guaranteed by a specefic asset are known as secured creditors.

Unsecured creditor

Unsecured creditors have no guarantee and can only receive a share of what is left after secured creditors are paid.


In most corporate bankruptcies, the bondholders will be the largest creditors, and their votes will be critical to approving a bankruptcy plan.


The sums of money owed by a bankrupt company are known as claims.

Claims may be made by bondholders seeking repayment of loans, by workers seeking unpaid wages, or by suppliers seeking to settle outstanding bills.

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 is the section the legal code that allows firms to declare bankruptcy while continuing their day-to-day activities.

A company taht goed into chapter 11 is usually seeking to deal with unmanageable debts while avoiding lawsuits by creditors and working to become profitable again.

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 covers insolvent companies that cease doing business, usually because they have no chance of returning to profitability.


A company that goes into chapter 7, also known as going into liquidation, will be broken up and have its assets sold separately, or liquidated, to recover as much cash as possible for creditors.